The Sustainable Development Goals. Figure taken from flickr

The Sustainable Development Goals. Figure taken from flickr

Per chi non ama leggere articoli troppo lunghi o trova difficoltà con l’inglese, vi suggeriamo di dare un’occhiata al sito ufficiale della campagna Global Goals for Sustainable Development, promossa da Richard Curtis, filmaker e fondatore di Comic Relief.

Otherwise, we are pleased to give you a brief overview of the Sustainable Development Goals, number 7 to 12, as described in the third chapter of the Agenda for Sustainable Development. For a description of the previous chapter, namely the “Declaration”, we suggest you to read our first post related to the Agenda, moreover, for a description of the first part of chapter three, together with SDGs 1 to 6, we suggest you to read our previous post related to the Agenda.

So, let’s continue to talk about SDGs, with an overview of SDGs 7 to 12!

SDG 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

The first two targets of SGD 7, i.e. 7.1 and 7.2, set general objectives in terms of access to energy and of increase in the share of renewables, thereby recommmending more specific and binding targets to be defined both at international and at national level. Some of them can be found within the Intended National Determined Contributions, submitted by the all the Parties taking part to the COP21 of the UNFCCC, held in Paris between November the 30th and December 11th. For example, India set to reach 175 GW of renewable energy capacity within 2022.

Targets 7.a and 7.b focus on the possible instruments helping to reach targets 7.1 – 7.3, mainly represented by international cooperation to promote access to clean energy research and technology (still including  “cleaner fossul-fuel technology“) and by the expansion of energy infrastructure and upgraded technology, addressing the needs of less developed countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries.

7.1. By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services

7.2. By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix

7.3. By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency

7.a. By 2030, enhance international cooperation to facilitate access to clean energy research and technology, including renewable energy, energy efficiency and advanced and cleaner fossil-fuel technology, and promote investment in energy infrastructure and clean energy technology

7.b. By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support

SDG 8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all

SDG 8 focuses on economic development, defining a set of targets which include very ambitious objectives, such as those reported in 8.5, 8.8 and 8.a.

8.1. Sustain per capita economic growth in accordance with national circumstances and, in particular, at least 7 per cent gross domestic product growth per annum in the least developed countries

8.2. Achieve higher levels of economic productivity through diversification, technological upgrading and innovation, including through a focus on high-value added and labour-intensive sectors

8.3. Promote development-oriented policies that support productive activities, decent job creation, entrepreneurship, creativity and innovation, and encourage the formalization and growth of micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, including through access to financial services

8.4. Improve progressively, through 2030, global resource efficiency in consumption and production and endeavour to decouple economic growth from environmental degradation, in accordance with the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, with developed countries taking the lead

8.5. By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value

8.6. By 2020, substantially reduce the proportion of youth not in employment, education or training

8.7. Take immediate and effective measures to eradicate forced labour, end modern slavery and human trafficking and secure the prohibition and elimination of the worst forms of child labour, including recruitment and use of child soldiers, and by 2025 end child labour in all its forms

8.8. Protect labour rights and promote safe and secure working environments for all workers, including migrant workers, in particular women migrants, and those in precarious employment

8.9. By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

8.10. Strengthen the capacity of domestic financial institutions to encourage and expand access to banking, insurance and financial services for all

8.a. Increase Aid for Trade support for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, including through the Enhanced Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance to Least Developed Countries

8.b. By 2020, develop and operationalize a global strategy for youth employment and implement the Global Jobs Pact of the International Labour Organization

SDG 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

SDG 9 is dedicated to the targets related to resilient infrastructure, to the fostering of industrialization, to the access to financial services, comprising upgrading of infrastructure and retrofitting industries, enhancing scientific research, access to information and communication technology. Particular attention is devoted to less developed and developing countries, having higher perspectives of economic growth.

9.1. Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and transborder infrastructure, to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.2. Promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and, by 2030, significantly raise industry’s share of employment and gross domestic product, in line with national circumstances, and double its share in least developed countries

9.3. Increase the access of small-scale industrial and other enterprises, in particular in developing countries, to financial services, including affordable credit, and their integration into value chains and markets

9.4. By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to make them sustainable, with increased resource-use efficiency and greater adoption of clean and environmentally sound technologies and industrial processes, with all countries taking action in accordance with their respective capabilities

9.5. Enhance scientific research, upgrade the technological capabilities of industrial sectors in all countries, in particular developing countries, including, by 2030, encouraging innovation and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private research and development spending

9.a. Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States 18

9.b. Support domestic technology development, research and innovation in developing countries, including by ensuring a conducive policy environment for, inter alia, industrial diversification and value addition to commodities

9.c. Significantly increase access to information and communications technology and strive to provide universal and affordable access to the Internet in least developed countries by 2020

SDG 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

SDG 10 pertains the targets aiming to reduce inequalities. Even if the target are somewhat general in their definition, some of them are really ambitious (10.1 and 10.3-10.7).

10.1. By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate higher than the national average

10.2. By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status

10.3. Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard

10.4. Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality

10.5. Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations

10.6. Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions

10.7. Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies

10.a. Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements

10.b. Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes

10.c. By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

SDG 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

SDG 11 defines several important targets in terms of sustainable urban living, with an accent on developing countries and disadvantaged and poor people in developed countries. Even if all the targets reveal to be commendable and challenging, we would like to highlight 11.5, in particular when it requests to “substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations“, which will be a prominent task to be addressed due to the more frequent extreme weather events related to climate change.

11.1. By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

11.2. By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

11.3. By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

11.4. Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

11.5. By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

11.6. By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

11.7. By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

11.a. Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

11.b. By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

11.c. Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

SDG 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

 SDG 12 is dedicated to the diffusion of sustainable production and consumption, based on the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns. These represent a set of  programmes addressing sustainable public procurement, consumer information programme, sustainable tourism programme, sustainable building and construction programme, sustainable lifestyles and education programme, sustainable food systems programme.

12.1. Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

12.2. By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

12.3. By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

12.4. By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

12.5. By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

12.6. Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

12.7. Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

12.8. By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

12.a. Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

12.b. Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

12.c. Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities